Phonological Awareness at 5 years of age in Children Who Use Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants Children with hearing loss typically underachieve in reading, possibly as a result of their underdeveloped phonological skills. This study addressed the questions of (1)whether or not the development of phonological awareness (PA) is influenced by the degree of hearing loss and (2) whether or not performance of children with severe-profound ... Article
Article  |   September 01, 2015
Phonological Awareness at 5 years of age in Children Who Use Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Teresa Y. C. Ching
    National Acoustic Laboratories, HEARing CRC, Sydney, Australia
  • Linda Cupples
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
  • Disclosures: Financial: Teresa Y.C. Ching and Linda Cupples have no relevant financial interests to disclose
    Disclosures: Financial: Teresa Y.C. Ching and Linda Cupples have no relevant financial interests to disclose×
  • Non-financial: Teresa Y. C. Ching and Linda Cupples have no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose
    Non-financial: Teresa Y. C. Ching and Linda Cupples have no relevant nonfinancial interests to disclose×
Article Information
Development / Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants & Assistive Technology / Speech, Voice & Prosody / Articles
Article   |   September 01, 2015
Phonological Awareness at 5 years of age in Children Who Use Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants
SIG 9 Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders in Childhood, September 2015, Vol. 25, 48-59. doi:10.1044/hhdc25.2.48
History: Received December 1, 2014 , Revised February 12, 2015 , Accepted March 26, 2015
SIG 9 Perspectives on Hearing and Hearing Disorders in Childhood, September 2015, Vol. 25, 48-59. doi:10.1044/hhdc25.2.48
History: Received December 1, 2014; Revised February 12, 2015; Accepted March 26, 2015

Children with hearing loss typically underachieve in reading, possibly as a result of their underdeveloped phonological skills. This study addressed the questions of (1)whether or not the development of phonological awareness (PA) is influenced by the degree of hearing loss and (2) whether or not performance of children with severe-profound hearing loss differed according to the hearing devices used. Drawing on data collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI, www.outcomes.nal.gov.au) study, the authors found that sound-matching scores of children with hearing loss ranging from mild to profound degrees were, on average, within the normal range. The degree of hearing loss did not have a significant impact on scores, but there was a non-significant tendency for the proportion of children who achieved zero scores to increase with increase in hearing loss. For children with severe hearing loss, there was no significant group difference in scores among children who used bilateral hearing aids, bimodal fitting (a cochlear implant and a hearing aid in contralateral ears), and bilateral cochlear implants. Although there is a need for further prospective research, professionals have an important role in targeting PA skills for rehabilitation of young children with hearing loss.

Acknowledgments
This work was partly supported by National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIH NIDCD R01-DC008080). The authors also acknowledge the financial support of the Commonwealth of Australia through the Department of Health, and the establishment of the HEARing CRC and the Cooperative Research Centres.
The authors thank Julia Day, Laura Button, Jessica Whitfield, Kathryn Crowe, Louise Martin and Nicole Mahler-Thompson for their assistance with data collection; and Vicky Zhang for her assistance in data extraction.
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